Palestine geography – The Right Road To Peace http://therightroadtopeace.com/ Fri, 19 Nov 2021 11:08:52 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://therightroadtopeace.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-2.png Palestine geography – The Right Road To Peace http://therightroadtopeace.com/ 32 32 Geography Department could not access files due to “possible data corruption” – The GW Hatchet https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-department-could-not-access-files-due-to-possible-data-corruption-the-gw-hatchet/ Mon, 18 Oct 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-department-could-not-access-files-due-to-possible-data-corruption-the-gw-hatchet/ Updated: Oct 18, 2021 1:36 PM Researchers in the Geography Department said they had been unable to access their research data for more than a month as officials worked to transition the Columbian College of Arts’ online file storage system and Sciences to an updated platform. Officials said they had been working to move files […]]]>

Updated: Oct 18, 2021 1:36 PM

Researchers in the Geography Department said they had been unable to access their research data for more than a month as officials worked to transition the Columbian College of Arts’ online file storage system and Sciences to an updated platform.

Officials said they had been working to move files from the old, obsolete system to the new storage platform since late last year, but found that two volumes of research data used by the department exhibited “possible data corruption”, blocking access until transfer. . Ministry officials said technical difficulties have delayed federally-funded research, to the detriment of taxpayer dollars and the limited efforts of graduate students to apply to graduate programs.

“We understand the importance of these files to our professors and the impact on their profession as well as the University and are genuinely exploring all of our options to restore as much as possible,” said Acting CTO Jared Johnson in an email.

Johnson said the CCAS file storage system, the CCAS cloud, was “at the end of its life” after eight years, and officials had been working since late last year to move the files to a new platform. ‘by December. He said professors reported they were unable to access the data in August, although the data was not corrupted and was not missing.

“We worked with the vendor to troubleshoot and perform system updates, but there was no performance improvement,” he said.

Johnson said IT staff worked in mid-September to migrate all data from faculties and departments to a “new storage solution,” except for 80 research volumes which were too large to migrate using the same procedure. Since then, Johnson has said IT staff “successfully migrated” 78 of 80 research volumes in early October to a new storage unit and restored full access to that data.

“We did not include these volumes in the larger migration because of this discovery,” he said. “The problems within these two volumes are probably the cause of the performance issues for the entire system.”

Johnson said the remaining two volumes exhibited “possible data corruption,” and IT staff met with faculty members who are relying on the two data volumes to understand how to prioritize their efforts to restore the data volumes. . He said 18 people have access to the remaining two volumes.

“We continue to provide updates and will work with them to identify any files missing due to corruption, or anything GWIT can do to regain access to any missing information,” he said.

IT requests have more than doubled in the first week of class this semester, and faculty have reported that slow response times to their requests are the result of “overworked” IT staff. Professors attributed the problems to officials switching to a shared service model for IT last summer when they consolidated GW’s technology services department to cut costs and mitigate the financial impact of the pandemic.

The Columbian College Cloud is currently housed in the university’s IT division in the Foggy Bottom data center.

“The main goal of the Cloud Project is to enable Colombian voters to work in the most productive way, while balancing end-user flexibility with cost, security and support,” according to the website. of the University.

Nikolay Shiklomanov, professor of geography and international affairs, said he had not been able to access his research data and syllabuses stored on his Colombian cloud research drive since the end of August.

“On our side, everything collapsed, from the end of August,” he said.

Shiklomanov said the incident forced professors and graduate students in the department to question the security and reliability of the cloud, given that the drive has been unreachable in recent weeks.

“The main question is: what will happen in the future? ” he said. “Because can we trust the system or can’t we trust the system?” “

Shiklomanov said his Arctic research is funded by a federal grant from the National Science Foundation, and delays in his work may have come at the expense of taxpayer dollars.

“It’s hard to assess the financial impact, but it scared us a little bit, you know,” he said.

Michael Mann, assistant professor of geography, said professors in the geography department had been made aware of possible data corruption, which he said “should be impossible” given that the University stores the data in two different places , Foggy Bottom, and Virginia Science and Technology Campus data centers.

Mann said Thursday evening that IT staff had restored some of their files, but because the files were randomly lost, some faculty and students were disproportionately affected by the inaccessible data. He added that the technical difficulties of this semester have cost the geography department “weeks, even months” of time.

“Personally, I have lost faith in our cloud infrastructure and plan to migrate my data to a more secure platform,” Mann said. “I hope the other professors are at least aware of the risks they face and plan to keep their own backups for their most important work.”

Sonia Clemens, a second-year student in the geography department, said she had had to put her research into thawing permafrost damage in countries near the Arctic Circle on hold for more than a month since the start of the semester. . She said she had to “redo” a whole new database since she could not access the data she had spent the spring semester compiling for her thesis on the geography of Antarctica.

“The job that I spent six months doing, I then had to do in two weeks,” she said.

Clemens said officials emailed her on October 4 saying they fixed the inaccessible cloud and that she could access her data to continue her dissertation research more than a month into the semester. . She said it was the first time officials had contacted her about her inaccessible data since the start of the semester.

Clemens said the inaccessible data delayed her preparation for an upcoming geography conference in October, where she would present some of her research. She said applicants for the doctoral program should share “publications and presentations” of their master’s work.

“It was a little scary, feeling that maybe I hadn’t done an adequate job, due to restrictions related to technical issues, to continue to a doctoral program,” she said. “It was probably the most frustrating part of the genre, how could that impact my future just based on a simple technical glitch?” “

This post has been updated to correct the following:
La Hachette wrongly pointed out that Shiklomanov is an associate professor. He is a full professor. We regret this error.


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The museum as a multidimensional compass in time and geography – the Brooklyn Rail https://therightroadtopeace.com/the-museum-as-a-multidimensional-compass-in-time-and-geography-the-brooklyn-rail/ Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:33:41 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/the-museum-as-a-multidimensional-compass-in-time-and-geography-the-brooklyn-rail/ The creation of the British Museum in the 1750s was never content to build a collection of exceptional objects, to build beautiful galleries or to bring together brilliant curators. Our national museum project began as our nation was taking shape, as the constituent nations that came to represent the UK established a difficult national modus […]]]>

The creation of the British Museum in the 1750s was never content to build a collection of exceptional objects, to build beautiful galleries or to bring together brilliant curators. Our national museum project began as our nation was taking shape, as the constituent nations that came to represent the UK established a difficult national modus operandi. The British Museum represented in its founding aspiration the intellectual instantiation of a new national collective voice and ambition, a desire to present and question the possibilities of the burgeoning British Enlightenment and a broader imperial agenda. The new museum redefines notions of time and geography with Britain as the global voice, engine and catalyst. And when, in the 1850s, a generation of radical innovators sought to rejuvenate this national museum paradigm, their plans were again shaped not only by a yearning for great buildings and objects, but by an evolving understanding of l Empire and Britain’s Role in the Changing World. National museums rarely limit themselves to their content; they become anchor points for new narratives, opportunities to reconsider history and formulate new futures. I have always seen museums as multidimensional compasses with the power to relocate us and anchor us in geography and time.

After a few years of living in the United States, I returned to Britain in 2020 for containment and to a nation that had changed dramatically. I came back to be part of a new project, working on the creation of a new national museum and collection center: V&A East. It has meant the creation of a museum at a time when time is again being recast. It has been a strange time to start a new role in the arts, a time when I both felt the vulnerability of the creative industries and appreciated their strength. I saw this when we desperately needed it. I was a witness the unique power of the arts to bring us together, offering catharsis and inspiration. The arts have seldom, in my memory, felt more important, more useful – and also more contested. It seemed like the right time to invest in a new museum infrastructure, to build a new place of comfort and reflection, so that we could question the collections, the narrative and our relationship to our past and our future.

We have taken the conundrum of losing our old collection center at Blythe House and turned it into a proposition that innovatively responds to the needs and opportunities of the moment. We are creating a new type of collection center at Here East, a space that will revolutionize access to the V&A collection, providing an unprecedented universal and free platform from which to tell new stories, collaborate in building new stories, renewing historical paradigms. 260,000 objects, 900 archives, 360,000 books in a single building, with its open central space, glass balustrades and glass floor, to allow visitors to feel physically immersed in the body of the collection.

In addition, we will provide the workspaces, tools and advice necessary for visitors to study, interrogate and reuse our collections in new ways. It is not just a cutting edge institution that will serve artists and academics; we want to build something that will help catalyze young ambitions and transform the lives of some of Europe’s most culturally underserved communities by focusing on the creators and creating important new ways. Driven by a timely ambition to inform and inspire and energized by the observation that we do not have all the answers, it will be a shared and collaborative enterprise. With this will naturally come a willingness to loosen control of narrative, to find ways to interrogate and negotiate historical perspectives and narratives with those we serve. Suddenly, this will force us to reconsider history and our relationship to its construction.

It is an interesting time when opportunity and need coincide; when the V&A has an extraordinary unique opportunity to build a true warehouse of experiential art and design and combine it with an experimental gallery and a partnership-based exhibition platform, to create a campus for the imagination, forging a space of account and reconciliation in which we can recognize complex and difficult stories, but also negotiate new relationships of equity, empathy and openness with cultures, communities, artists and creators of the world.


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Geography Determines Survival Of Babies Born With Birth Defects Across The Globe https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-determines-survival-of-babies-born-with-birth-defects-across-the-globe/ Wed, 14 Jul 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-determines-survival-of-babies-born-with-birth-defects-across-the-globe/ The survival of a baby born with a birth defect depends on where you were born The survival of a baby born with a birth defect – otherwise known as a birth defect – depends on where you were born, a new study finds. Babies born with birth defects involving the intestinal tract have a […]]]>
The survival of a baby born with a birth defect depends on where you were born

The survival of a baby born with a birth defect – otherwise known as a birth defect – depends on where you were born, a new study finds.

Babies born with birth defects involving the intestinal tract have a one in 20 chance of dying in a high-income country, compared to one in five in a middle-income country and two in five in a low-income country.

Scientists from 74 countries (full list below) examined the risk of death for nearly 4,000 babies born with birth defects in 264 hospitals around the world.

Gastroschisis, a birth defect where babies are born with their intestines protruding from a hole in the umbilicus, has the greatest difference in mortality with 90% of babies dying in low-income countries compared to 1% in countries high income. In high-income countries, most of these babies will be able to live fully without disabilities.

Professor Justine Davies, one of the UK study leaders from the University of Birmingham, said: ‘The differences in life and death for babies born with these highly treatable conditions in high, middle income countries or weak are tragic. This reflects the general lack of attention and investment in surgical care in low- and middle-income countries. Most people living in high-income countries take it for granted that they can access high-quality care if they or their children have a condition that can be treated surgically, but this is not a reality for the population. most people in the world.

Principal investigator Dr. Naomi Wright has spent the past four years studying these disparities in outcomes. She said, “Geography shouldn’t determine outcomes for babies who have correctable surgical conditions. The sustainable development goal of “ending preventable deaths in infants and children under 5 by 2030” is unachievable without urgent action to improve surgical care for babies in developing countries. low and middle income. “

Researchers call for focus on improving surgical care for newborns in low- and middle-income countries around the world.

Over the past 25 years, while there has been great success in reducing deaths in children under 5 by preventing and treating infectious diseases, little emphasis has been placed on improving surgical care for babies and children and indeed the proportion of deaths related to surgical diseases continues to rise.

Birth defects are now the fifth leading cause of death in children under 5 worldwide, with most deaths occurring during the neonatal period. Birth defects involving the intestinal tract have an especially high mortality in low- and middle-income countries, as many are not compatible with living without emergency surgical care after birth.

In high-income countries, most women have an antenatal ultrasound to assess birth defects. If identified, it allows the woman to deliver in a hospital with surgical care for the children so that the baby can receive help from birth. In low- and middle-income countries, babies with these conditions often arrive late at the children’s surgical center in poor clinical condition. The study shows that babies who present to the children’s surgical center who are already septic with an infection have a higher risk of dying.

The study highlights the importance of perioperative care (the care received on both sides of the intervention or the corrective intervention) at the pediatric surgery center. Babies treated in hospitals without access to ventilation and intravenous nutrition when needed had a higher risk of dying. In addition, not having qualified anesthetic support and not using a surgical safety checklist at the time of the operation was associated with a higher risk of death.

Improving survival under these conditions in low- and middle-income countries involves three key elements:

  • improving prenatal diagnosis and childbirth in a hospital with surgical care for children;
  • improving surgical care for babies born in district hospitals, with safe and timely transfer to the pediatric surgery center; and
  • improved perioperative care for babies at the children’s surgery center.

This requires strong teamwork and planning between midwifery and obstetrics teams, neonatal and pediatric teams, and pediatric surgical teams at the pediatric surgery center, as well as outreach education and a networking with referral hospitals.

Along with local initiatives, surgical care for newborns and children should be integrated into national and international child health policies and should no longer be neglected in the context of global child health.

Notes to Editors:

  • The University of Birmingham is ranked among the top 100 institutions in the world, its work brings people from all over the world to Birmingham, including researchers and teachers and over 6,500 international students from over 150 countries.
  • “Mortality from congenital gastrointestinal anomalies in 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries: a multicenter, international and prospective cohort study” N. Wright et al is published in The Lancet. Please feel free to include the following post-embargo link in your article
  • Participating countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic Republic of Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Gambia, Ghana, Germany, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Laos, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia , Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine (Gaza Strip), Palestine (West Bank), Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Korea South, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


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Yemen and the curse of geography: Bab al-Mandab challenged by great power rivalries https://therightroadtopeace.com/yemen-and-the-curse-of-geography-bab-al-mandab-challenged-by-great-power-rivalries/ Tue, 18 May 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/yemen-and-the-curse-of-geography-bab-al-mandab-challenged-by-great-power-rivalries/ Successive crises, conflicts and general instability in Yemen, which have plagued the country for decades, raise the question of how Yemen’s unique geography has contributed to its woes. Did a “geography curse” cause Yemen to collapse? In his book Revenge of geography, political and military expert Robert Kaplan described Yemen as a “heart of all […]]]>

Successive crises, conflicts and general instability in Yemen, which have plagued the country for decades, raise the question of how Yemen’s unique geography has contributed to its woes. Did a “geography curse” cause Yemen to collapse? In his book Revenge of geography, political and military expert Robert Kaplan described Yemen as a “heart of all importance”, attributing its instability to its strategic location and its topography. Kaplan’s opinion is apparently supported by the ongoing conflicts on the ground.

The war in Yemen began on March 26, 2015, when an Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia launched Operation “Decisive Storm” to overthrow the Houthis and restore the internationally recognized government to power. Soon after, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates extended their territorial control over vital and strategic areas of Yemen, forming and supporting political and military entities parallel to and sometimes in competition with the government. Meanwhile, Yemeni President Abed Rabo Mansour Hadi lives in exile in Riyadh under virtual house arrest.

This complicated set of circumstances calls for an in-depth examination of the role of geopolitics in the evolution of Yemen’s regional relations, particularly with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Turkey.

Bab al Mandab

Strategically located on the Strait of Bab al-Mandab, Yemen has long been at the center of regional geopolitics. The strait separates Yemen and Djibouti, and Asia from Africa, connecting the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. The strait is 30 kilometers (KM) wide and is divided into two channels by Perim Island; the western channel is 26 km wide and 30 meters deep, and the east is 3 km wide and 310 meters deep.

This famous gateway has witnessed various wars, conflicts and struggles throughout its history, such as the 1973 blockade of Iranian oil tankers heading for Israel during the October War. The importance of Bab al-Mandab increased significantly with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, resulting in an increase in the volume of international maritime trade. Its importance further increased following the discovery of oil in the Arabian Peninsula and the boom in trade from East Asia. The vital waterway is now a major artery of globalization as it links Europe to the Indian Ocean and East Africa.

Silk Road

Given its prime location, it’s no surprise that Yemen is the key to China’s Belt and Road initiative, also known as the “New Silk Road”. The strategic location of the islands of Yemen and the ports of Aden and Moka should place Yemen in an ideal position to establish partnerships and acquire business opportunities that would ensure its economic vitality.

While officials in Hadi’s government signed a preliminary memorandum of understanding with China in 2019, the United Arab Emirates intervened, assuming full control of Yemen’s vital ports and islands, preventing Yemen from participating in the project. The UAE’s decision also violates Yemen’s sovereign right to pursue its economic interests. The UAE, meanwhile, is pursuing an ambitious strategic agenda that aims to ensure that DP World, a Dubai-based company, has full control of both Yemeni ports and the Strait of Bab al-Mandab. This could ensure that the area becomes a hub for UAE trade activities, while allowing the UAE to play the role of regional protector by controlling the flow of arms and supporting proxy groups.

By presenting itself to the West and Israel as the guardian of the region, the UAE is trying to make up for the Gulf’s failed double containment policy against Iran and Turkey. The Emirates do not hesitate to insinuate that the alternative to its presence would be either the Houthis backed by Iran or the Islah party supported by Turkey. This policy was directly illustrated by the UAE’s military engagement in 2017 with Yemeni forces to remove the Houthis and the Islah party from control of Bab al-Mandab.

Control the earth

In February 2020, Abu Dhabi officially announced the withdrawal of its troops from Yemen, but it is likely that Abu Dhabi will retain its influence, directly or indirectly, in strategic areas of the country. Although the UAE has evacuated most of its facilities in Eritrea, it has recently started building a military base with an airstrip on Perim Island. He also created several political and military entities to strengthen his presence and control, including the Southern Transition Council (CTS) in 2017, led by Aidaros al-Zoubaidi, and more recently in March 2020, the Political Bureau of the Resistance. national government, headed by Brigadier General Tariq Saleh, which administers several non-state armed groups that are said to include a total of around 200,000 combatants.

These UAE-backed entities effectively control southwestern Yemen. They enjoy the support of the great international powers who do not hesitate to make public diplomatic gestures to show their support. Zoubaidi was invited to attend a session in the British House of Commons, and Michael Aron, the British Ambassador to Yemen, graciously greeted the announcements from the Yemeni National Resistance Political Bureau. The meeting the Ambassador had with Tariq Saleh, the head of the Office, was a clear sign of UK support for the inclusion of the STC in the newly formed Yemeni government, in accordance with the Riyadh Accord, which would allow the STC to gain more international political recognition.

The UAE’s control over the strait also suggests that there will be an indirect Israeli presence, especially after relations between the two countries normalize. It’s no secret that the Strait of Bab al-Mandab is as important to Israel as it is to Egypt, especially if the Ben-Gurion Canal, the Red Sea and Mediterranean waterway that Israelis present as a potential rival of the Suez Canal, is never built.

A crossroads of competitors

As global attention is directed to the town of Marib, the center of a bitter war since February 7 between the Houthis and forces backed by the internationally recognized Yemeni government, government forces have attempted to downsize the Houthi forces. by engaging them in another battle at Taiz.

Popular mobilization forces, and other formations of the Islah party supported by Turkey and Qatar, focused their attack on the west of the province of Taiz, towards the city of Masha and Bab al-Mandab, where there are has a small Houthi presence, and a large UAE-backed force corps. These military measures coincided with a direct demand by Sheikh Hamid al-Ahmar, the prominent leader of the tribal and Islah party, for Turkish military intervention in Yemen, arguing that this is the only way to restore the legitimate government to power. . This apparently follows the critical role of the Turkish intervention in Libya.

The United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Iran and Qatar all find themselves embroiled in the war in Yemen. The rampant conflicts between the countries involved in the Yemen tragedy are a direct result of the greed and regional ambitions that have destroyed Yemen and could very well lead to its fragmentation. The UAE continues to play its role in Yemen with the unspoken blessing of the United States, as evidenced by former US Secretary of Defense James Mattis, who dubbed the UAE “Little Sparta” after its takeover of the United Arab Emirates. Bab al-Mandab Strait in April 2017, comparing the Emirates favorably to the ancient Greek city-state that fought against the Persian Empire. Abu Dhabi Ambassador to Washington Yousef al-Otaiba responded that [we] “I believe America’s role in our part of the world provides stability, provides security, provides jobs, provides ideas. And so, we are not just in the pro-American camp. We are the cheerleaders of the pro-American camp. In addition, the Biden administration has decided to proceed with a $ 23 billion arms sale to the United Arab Emirates, which includes F-35 fighter jets.

This agreement between the two countries indicates that Bab al-Mandab and other vital areas will likely remain under direct control of the UAE in violation of Yemeni sovereignty until Yemeni actors agree to a unified political position or a Unexpected fundamental change in regional dynamics occurs.

Ammar Al Ashwal is a Yemeni journalist for a number of Arab and international newspapers. He holds a master’s degree in media and communication sciences from the Lebanese University of Beirut. Follow him on twitter @lshwal.



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How conflicts, blockades and history have shaped the geography of Gaza https://therightroadtopeace.com/how-conflicts-blockades-and-history-have-shaped-the-geography-of-gaza/ Sun, 16 May 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/how-conflicts-blockades-and-history-have-shaped-the-geography-of-gaza/ Children are also frequently injured in attacks, as they represent an unusually high percentage of the population. As a new wave of violence between Israelis and Palestinians heads into all-out war, the death toll is increasingly out of balance. On the Palestinian side, health officials say more than 180 people in the Gaza Strip, including […]]]>

Children are also frequently injured in attacks, as they represent an unusually high percentage of the population.

As a new wave of violence between Israelis and Palestinians heads into all-out war, the death toll is increasingly out of balance.

On the Palestinian side, health officials say more than 180 people in the Gaza Strip, including children, have been killed in Israeli military operations, including airstrikes and bombings. Israel has so far counted less than a dozen dead in rocket attacks from Gaza.

Israel’s sophisticated missile defense system and far greater firepower play a major role in explaining the imbalance – as does the unusual geography of the Gaza Strip.

Gaza City is more densely populated than Tel Aviv and other major cities in the world like London and Shanghai, and much more than the regions of Israel that surround it. This means that even targeted airstrikes in Gaza have a high probability of hitting civilians.

Children are also frequently injured in attacks, as they represent an unusually high percentage of the population: Unicef ​​estimates that around 1 million children live in the Gaza Strip, which means that a few less than half of Gaza’s 2.1 million people are children.

The burden of such conflicts “rests fiercely on the shoulders of civilians, and primarily women and children,” said Dmytro Chupryna, deputy director of Airwars, an organization that monitors civilian casualties. “Most of the civilian casualties we see happen when civilians are hiding in the basement because there is nowhere to run away.”

The Israeli communities surrounding the Gaza Strip are much less dense. Farmland dot the landscape, contrasting against the crowded skyline of high-rise buildings along much of the Gaza Strip.

About 1.4 million of the inhabitants of the Gaza Strip are Palestinian refugees, according to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency – well over half of the population.

Refugee camps sprang up in the territory as Palestinians fled the violence of the first Arab-Israeli war in 1948, and continued to expand as more Palestinians were displaced as a result of the second. conflict in 1967.

A high birth rate and the arrival of new refugees from war-torn countries like Syria in recent years has meant that the population has continued to grow – and the United Nations expects it to double over the course of the next 30 years.

About twice the size of the District of Columbia, the impoverished Palestinian territory is surrounded by Israel on almost all sides. It also shares a small land border with Egypt.

Living conditions in Gaza are grim: 95% of the population does not have access to safe drinking water, according to UNRWA, and power cuts periodically interrupt life.

The territory has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world, according to World Bank statistics, and the United Nations estimates that around 80% of the population depends on international aid to survive and access health services. based.

In an area as dense as Gaza, Chupryna said, the airstrikes are likely to have side effects, hitting already weak infrastructure and leaving civilians without electricity and water.

Israel restricts movement outside the Gaza Strip and also maintains an air, land and sea blockade that it says is necessary to prevent Hamas from obtaining supplies that could be used for terrorism.

But the blockade also narrowly limits Palestinians’ access to basic supplies and basic food, and the UN estimates it has cost the territory’s economy up to $ 16.7 billion over 11 years. .


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Reviews | Sinai’s sacred geography receives biblical treatment https://therightroadtopeace.com/reviews-sinais-sacred-geography-receives-biblical-treatment/ Wed, 16 Sep 2020 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/reviews-sinais-sacred-geography-receives-biblical-treatment/ Since the dawn of exploration and travel, many travelers have drawn their passion and inspiration from the biblical geography associated with the Sinai Peninsula. Atef Moatamed Before the development of Egyptology in the XIXe and 20e For centuries, most travelers have seen Egypt just as the backdrop to the scene of the Exodus and part […]]]>

Since the dawn of exploration and travel, many travelers have drawn their passion and inspiration from the biblical geography associated with the Sinai Peninsula.

Atef Moatamed

Before the development of Egyptology in the XIXe and 20e For centuries, most travelers have seen Egypt just as the backdrop to the scene of the Exodus and part of the “Children of Israel” itinerary.

One of the oldest known trips to Sinai was the pilgrimage made by the French Postumian around AD 400. The history of his pilgrimage is known only from the writings of the Christian historian Sulpice Sévère (363 – 425 CE).

Postumian traveled from Narbonne in present-day France to Alexandria, from where he visited Sinai and Thebaid in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, in search of the famous Christian hermits of this period. He climbed Mount Sinai and gave a general description of its summit.

Around the same period, at the beginning of the 5e Century, Aetheria (or Egeria) completed her pilgrimage to Sinai, presenting one of the most astonishing descriptions of life on Mount Sinai.

She retraced, step by step, what the monks revealed to her as the footprints of the children of Israel who received the law of God through the sacred places of Mount Sinai, Elijah and Horeb. They are also said to have traveled to the plains of El-Raha and Riphidem, and other places mentioned in the biblical books of Exodus and Numbers.

Throughout the centuries after Aetheria, many important pilgrimages to the region have taken place. These include the voyage of Félix Fabri, written under the title Fratris Felicis Fabri Evagatorium in Terrae sanctae, Arabiae and Aegypti Peregrinationem, which was published in 1448.

Fabri proposed the bases for re-imagining contemporary geographic scenes from certain books of the Bible, such as Exodus, Judges, Numbers, and the Books of the Maccabees.

In addition, Fabri reiterated the stereotypes of the Middle Ages about Muslims living in the holy lands of Palestine, in which they are often described as “infidels” or “Saracens”.

ONCE IN SINAI

Fabri was one of the first travelers to attempt to piece together biblical names associated with Sinai and Palestine such as Ethan, Mara, Helim, Dephea, Raphadim, Areroth, Rechma, and Cades. He explained fifteen meanings of the word “desert,” as a place of isolation, death, snakes, sand dunes, thirst, devil, and temptation.

Fabri opened up some of the ancient paths to what would later become “Orientalism”, describing the Bedouins as a savage and miserable people. He also gave them the name of “thieves of the desert” because he claimed that they were not arming themselves for battles to defend their lands, but to steal from others.

In 1547, Pierre Belon du Mans (1518-1564) made his “Voyage en Egypt”. As Belon was more interested in the natural history of the country, he showed little interest in the sacred history and geography of the Sinai Peninsula.

During his visit to Sinai, he was busy describing the natural vegetation and cultivated crops of the oasis of Phiran, at the foot of Mount Sinai. Despite his good map of St. Catherine’s Monastery and sacred sites, there is no mention in his book of biblical quotes or stories of Moses and his people. In his itinerary, George Chr. Von Neithzschitz (1636) followed in the footsteps of the Children of Israel in Sinai.

The Egypt trip de Balthasar de Monconys (1646-1647) presented a “neutral” description of Sinai and a detailed route from Suez to Mount Sinai. Within this framework, he included impressive drawings of Saint Catherine’s Monastery and the two peaks of Mount Sinai and Mount of Saint Catherine. The same “neutrality” is found in Travels in Egypt by Jean Coppin, 1638-1640.

Other travelers, such as Aquilante Rocchetta (1599), Henry Castela (1601), Gabriel Bremond (1645) and Ellis Veryard (1678) adopted a semi-neutral method. They presented their itineraries in Sinai by describing the scenes against a background of “sacred theater”.

Once again the Trip to Mount Sinai Father Sicard (1720) was inspired by the sacred texts of the Bible and the book of Exodus in particular. There are many place names associated with the Children of Israel, and this trip was unique in presenting a map of the Sinai Peninsula according to the Bible.

There were also several trips by Russians dedicated especially to the pilgrimage to Mount Sinai, including a very impressive one by Basil Posniakoff (1558).

Pierre Belon

Posniakoff was totally oriented by a religious version of the geography of the Exodus, with his trip mandated by a political mission and supported by Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible. He also had the blessing of Metropolitan Macarius, who gave it on behalf of all Orthodox Christians in the Russian territories.

This trip was one of the first to provide details of what was considered Bedouin violence against the monks at St. Catherine’s Monastery.

The Russian merchant Basil Gogara made his trip to Sinai in 1634, and also mentioned Arab hostility towards Saint Catherine’s monastery. This happened despite, he claimed, the monks providing these “savages” with food and aid.

Russian monk Hippolyte Vichensky (1708) sets out on a journey to Egypt, where he delivers images of real geography rather than the Bible. Here there were more details about the sources of Moses (or Ayoun Mousa in Arabic), the multicolored landscape and the vibrant flora of Mount Araba. He also wrote about Saint Catherine’s Monastery, the religious life of the monks, the wealth of animal life in Sinai, and the route from Mount Sinai to Raithou (El-Tor).

More recent Russian voyages, including those of Abraham Noroff (1835 and 1861) and Porphyry Ouspensky (1845 and 1850), have undertaken research into the Arabic significance of certain geographic names relating to the Exodus.

Noroff claimed, for example, that the mountain of ‘Ataqa is Arabic for the “deliverance” of the children of Israel from the pursuit of Pharaoh’s army and crossing the Red Sea near Qolzum (Suez) .

According to Noroff, some Arabs around Saint Catherine’s Monastery are descended from slaves sent by the Roman Emperor Justinian and are believed to be of gypsy origin. Ouspensky gives a good account of the main stops on the pilgrim route through central Sinai, in particular Wadi Shelal, Wadi Nasab, Serabit Al-Khadim and Wadi Wardan.

In his journey “Travel sketch in Egypt and Sinai “, Alexander Dumas (1839) added an expressive caption: “Including a visit to Mount Horeb and other localities of the exodus”. The same method was adopted in the famous book by EH Palmer (1871) entitled The desert of the Exodus.

Palmer paid a heavy price for his trip, when he was killed in 1883 by Bedouins in central Sinai. He was sent there by the English government, most likely to aid the English invasion by using his influence on the Arabs of the El-Tih Desert. He succeeded in preventing the Arab sheikhs from joining the Egyptian nationalist movement, led by Ahmed Orabi, and obtained their non-interference in the Suez Canal.

In 1871, William Beamont published an account of his trip to the Egyptian peninsula in Towards Sinai and Syene, and back in 1860 and 1861. Beamont’s account is another example from the history of changing winds while geography remains unchanged. In chapter 9, entitled The Exodus, Beamont re-imagines the sacred story of the flight to the Promised Land by the “Shemmo” (or “foreigners” as the Egyptians called the Children of Israel).

Throughout these examples of travel to Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula became the cradle of Judaism. With Palestine designated as the birthplace of Christianity, the two regions were incorporated on a pilgrimage trip, generally following in the footsteps of Moses and his people.

Recent photo of the Convent of Saint Catherine

Considerable parts of most of these trips draw heavily on the writings of the Holy Books or biased analyzes of the anthropological characteristics of the local population, rather than observing actual landscapes.

After writing their general impressions of the desert scenes, the camels, the tents, the Bedouins, the scorching heat and rays of the sun, the sandy plains and the pale rocks, travelers generally return to the story (mainly the myths and meta-stories rather than actual archeology) to complete the long pages of their accounts.

With the start of a critical period in Egyptian history at the end of the 19th century, the American traveler Henry Field arrived in Egypt. His book Into the desert: with a brief overview of recent events in Egypt was published in New York in 1883.

While most of Field’s work is devoted to a detailed description of Sinai and southern Palestine, the first two chapters deal with political unrest in Egypt during the British occupation.

Because of its political, historical, geographic and cultural anthropology, the Field’s voyage of 1883 deserves to be detailed in the next article.




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Geography of Galilee supports historicity of Solomon’s kingdom, researcher says https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-of-galilee-supports-historicity-of-solomons-kingdom-researcher-says/ Wed, 12 Aug 2020 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/geography-of-galilee-supports-historicity-of-solomons-kingdom-researcher-says/ Over the past decades, the historicity of Solomon’s kingdom and its importance to the region as described by the Bible has been the subject of much debate among archaeologists and experts. However, one possible answer supporting the scriptures could come from the tool of historical geography, one scholar suggested. A description of part of the […]]]>

Over the past decades, the historicity of Solomon’s kingdom and its importance to the region as described by the Bible has been the subject of much debate among archaeologists and experts. However, one possible answer supporting the scriptures could come from the tool of historical geography, one scholar suggested. A description of part of the kingdom’s territory can be found in the Book of Kings: the cedar and cypress wood and the gold it needed – King Solomon in turn gave Hiram 20 cities in the region of Galileo. But when Hiram came from Tire to inspect the cities Solomon had given him, he was not satisfied. “My brother,” he said, “what kinds of cities have you given me? They were therefore named the country of Cabul, as is always the case. However, Hiram sent the king one hundred and twenty talents of gold ”, read verses 11-14 of the ninth chapter of I Kings.Dr. Kyle Keimer, Senior Lecturer in Archeology and History of Ancient Israel at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, compared the content of this passage and the characteristics of the lands it refers to as the context needed to understand the dynamics. of power between the monarch of Israel and the ruler of the Phoenician city-state. The scholar suggested that contrary to what others have said in the past, the events described in the Bible are consistent with the geopolitical situation at the time, offering new perspectives on the accuracy of the description. The Jerusalem Post, Keimer explained that the first inspiration for this study, the results of which were published in the journal Palestine Exploration Quarterly last month, came while he was working on Phoenician pottery found in northern Israel. The Cypro-Phoenician pottery called ‘Black on Red Ware’ and I started to study the interactions between the Phoenicians and the Israelites, ”he said. “At the same time, I was very interested in historical geography and understanding how the landscape played a role in the unfolding of certain events. When I read this passage from Kings, the two aspects came together. The scientist regularly comes to excavate in Israel and he is currently co-director of excavations at Khirbet Arai (el-Rai) in the central part of the country with Yosef Garfinkel (Hebrew University) and Saar Ganor (Israel Antiquities Authority). He stressed that the issues related to the four verses he analyzed must be seen in the larger context of the debate on the historicity of the biblical text. Called United Monarchy, the kingdoms of Saul, David and Solomon, there is a great divide. There are those who say that on the whole the Biblical portrait of them is a later creation and that they were much more limited in size and scope, and others who say that the Bible is accurate in the description of the situation of the deceased. 11th and 10th century [BCE] and how powerful they were, ”he said, adding that he believes both sides underestimate the added value that geography can offer. “I think that geography is this window that always connects us to the past in a very physical way, because despite modern developments, this has not really changed and it gives us the opportunity to evaluate these texts”, a he pointed out. “So far, architecture, pottery, or carbon dating have not given us a smoking gun in one way or another regarding the Solomon Kingdom debate. We have to be creative. In the research, Keimer worked to find out if the relationship between Solomon and Hiram seems plausible. Archaeologists have rejected the view offered by some scholars suggesting that between the two rulers, Solomon must have been the one in a position. “When we look at the physical landscape and the situation of Tire in relation to the situation of the Kingdom of Israel, the first was an island with a very limited and unproductive hinterland, as we know from landscape studies and geological analysis. On the contrary, Israel had much more fertile land and international trade had to pass through its territory, ”he stressed. friendly, but who was in a weaker position with “mountainous” or “good-for-nothing” land, as Keimer suggested to understand the word “Cabul” based once again on the poor characteristics of the area identified as Cabul in the hills of Allonim and the western hills that rise into the Lower Galilee. “Access to good agricultural land is the real geographic component that people have not considered before in discussing this passage from the biblical text,” he said. “Everyone looks at Tire and thinks of it as the very powerful trading center that it would become in the latter part of the Iron Age and especially in the seventh century BCE, and from there they make deductions about the 10th century BCE, although we have fairly limited archaeological finds from this period. I don’t believe it works. The researcher also considered other elements, such as the direction taken by several sites in the Galilee, which allowed him to better understand the border between political entities. Keimer said that this type of geographic analysis provides support for the historicity of the Kingdom of Solomon as a whole, “because we see a clear change in the nature of the fortified sites of the early part of the Iron Age IIA. at the rear, where we find much larger sites fortified in a completely different way to the north facing Aram / Damascus.


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Amman, Jericho, Ramallah: border crossing and the politics of geography https://therightroadtopeace.com/amman-jericho-ramallah-border-crossing-and-the-politics-of-geography/ Wed, 08 May 2019 07:00:00 +0000 https://therightroadtopeace.com/amman-jericho-ramallah-border-crossing-and-the-politics-of-geography/ Graffiti on the apartheid wall built by Israel in Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine. (Photo: via AJE) By Akram Al Deek April 13, 2019 Amman. 6 o’clock in the morning. 1000 m above sea level. You queue for a bus going to Jerusalem. No one says Palestine or Israel. Jerusalem is becoming an umbrella term for […]]]>
Graffiti on the apartheid wall built by Israel in Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine. (Photo: via AJE)

By Akram Al Deek

April 13, 2019

Amman. 6 o’clock in the morning. 1000 m above sea level.

You queue for a bus going to Jerusalem. No one says Palestine or Israel. Jerusalem is becoming an umbrella term for everything beyond the Allenby Bridge, also known to Jordanians as the King Hussein Bridge. Palestinians refer to it by what they aspire to, Al Karameh Bridge, The Pont de la Dignité, which refers to the 1968 battle between the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and the combined forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization (OLP) and the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) in the Jordanian city ​​of Karameh.

To each is its own cultural and historical reference to defeat or triumph. We landed on The Banks and headed for the land of Canaan. Cars lined up by the dozen. The heat of the bright sun shone through the glass and you could feel its burn. The Jordan Valley, the Ghor, is part of the larger Jordan Valley, one of the hottest places in the Middle East, a key agricultural area, and stretches from the north of Lake Tiber to the Dead Sea in South ; and from the latter to Aqapa, or Wadi Arabah.

To move from Jordan to the West Bank, an Israeli visa is required. You haven’t actually crossed or seen a bridge. The terminal is a border post between the Palestinian West Bank and Jordan; however, it is governed and directed by the Israeli authorities. A two-meter-wide gate is the only way out and out for Palestinians living in the West Bank since Palestinians are not allowed to use Israel’s Tel Aviv airport, Ben Gurion Airport.

Ben Gurion was named after David Ben Gurion the primary national founder of State of israel and the first prime minister of Israel; while the Allenby Bridge was named after Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, a British Imperial Governor who fought in the First World War, in which he led the British empire‘s Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) during Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Ottoman Empire to conquer Palestine.

Between Allenby and Ben-Gurion, the Palestinians have no way out outside the colonial whale but The Bridge: the whale’s throat. A blue whale’s throat is the size of a side dish. And the biggest thing he can swallow is probably a melon. Blue whales also eat nothing for eight months of the year. However, during the summer, they eat up to three tons per day.

The terminal was also the busiest in summer. The bus left Jordan, turning its back on Syria, heading west via the Yarmouk / Jordan River, past Lake Tiberius / Sea of ​​Galilee, through the Jordan Valley to the Allenby border.

Jericho. 11:15 am. 400 m below sea level.

The Jordanian border security officer registers your name and contact details and searches for you to ensure the security of the Israeli border. The Israeli security officer registers and validates your passage with a 3-month visit visa.

The Israeli officer asks me to open my WhatsApp application and copy my number. The Palestinian security officer reviews your papers and records your contact details. You exchange Jordanian dinars for Israeli shekels to pay for Palestinian water. Other tourists are in air-conditioned VIP vehicles.

The surrounding bare mountains welcome you with bare breasts. Your mobile phone network automatically shuttles from Jordanian Zain, to Israel Cellcom, to Palestinian Jawwal for a period of 20 minutes. The climate changes accordingly.

Ramallah. 2 p.m. 880 m above sea level, again.

You stop at a falafel shop to eat and a graffiti next to you says “We are hungry for freedom”.

Graffiti in Ramallah eats you alive and spits you out raw. You stop for a second to cross the zebra lines above a street, and Mahmoud Darwish is yelling at you from all over the city. You are seated in a cafe and Marcel Khalife bitter all the sweetness of your tea.

The antiquity of the toilet walls in old houses turned into local pubs and cafes in Ramallah reminds you that an abstract memory can turn into a slap in the face. And your cheeks burn as a result. You drive away and your playlist is disrupted by Israeli ads. Everything in Ramallah is political. Even love. Mostly love.

And that is why everything in Ramallah turns into a poem; turns you into a poem. Everything is poetry in Ramallah, of which you are the reader and the writer and the editor and the words. Ramallah transforms you into a language punctuated with the colors of jasmine, popcorn with thyme, scorching, scorching; there is always something burning in Ramallah: ash, hash, burnt rubber, anguish.

The fires are punctuated by orange shuttles, sounds of shootings at the headquarters of Fatah, females with a thousand shades of grace, eucalyptus, trees, oaks, trees, trees and bonfires in the schoolyards. Names and pronouns in Ramallah do not reflect subjects, but carry over to an eternity of carpet of alphabets.

Ramallah then becomes a threshold towards becoming. Everything in Ramallah tastes of the bitter sweetness of its locally brewed beer, Shepherd. The word semantically connotes direction, direction and leadership – all that Ramallah lacks.

You come back but you don’t come back. You arrive but you are not there. The physicality of memory weighs more than time. And you are no longer the traveler, but the borders that you cross.

– Akram Al Deek is Assistant Professor of Post-Colonial Literature at the American University of Madaba (AUM), Jordan. He is the author of Writing Displacement, published by Palgrave Macmillan, and Eucalyptus Obliqua, published by Ward Publishers. He is a contributing columnist for the Jordan Times. He contributed this article to The Palestine Chronicle.


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